The anaesthetic consideration of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children
ases of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration are frequently encountered emergency cases of childhood; and, delays in its recognition and treatment do result in serious morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis mainly relies on taking history which should indicate what the foreign body is, when it has been aspirated and where it is located. Belated consultation can cause misdiagnosis with the mixing of the symptoms and data with those of other pathologies common to childhood and further delays in the correct diagnosis. Bronchoscopy is required for the differential diagnosis of suspected tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in order to eliminate other common pediatric respiratory concerns. Given the shared use of the airways by the surgeon and the anaesthesiologist, bronchoscopy is a challenging procedure requiring experienced teams with an efficient method of intercommunication, and also well planning of the anaesthesia and bronchoscopy ahead of the procedures. Despite the recent popularisation of the fiberoptic brochoscopes , the rigid bronchoscopy remains to be used commonly and is regarded to provide the gold standard technique. There have been reports in the literature on the uses of inhalation and/or intravenous (IV) anaesthesia and spontaneous or controlled ventilation methods without any demonstration of the superiority of one technique over the other. The most suitable methods of anaesthesia and ventilation would be those that reduce the risks of complications, morbidity and mortality; and, preventive measures should be taken with priority against childhood cases of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration.