Article Abstract

A critical appraisal of the morphine in the acute pulmonary edema: real or real uncertain?

Authors: Alberto Dominguez-Rodriguez, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez


Acute heart failure (AHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization and consultation in hospital emergency department (ED) in industrialized nations (1,2), and its prevalence increases with age (1). For many physicians, acute pulmonary edema (APE) is the real clinical presentation of AHF; typically, signs and symptoms develop rapidly and patients demonstrate severe respiratory distress with tachypnea, orthopnea, and pulmonary congestion (3).