The impact of flexible endoscopy in esophageal surgery
Achalasia and Treatment of esophageal Adenocarcinoma are commonly associated to surgical resection. Newer technologies in interventional endoscopy gave way to a substantial paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In the case of achalasia, endoscopic myotomy is rapidly displacing Heller’s myotomy as the gold standard in many centers. Early stage neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) comprising high-grade dysplasia (HGD), intramucosal and, in some cases, submucosal carcinoma is now being treated without the need of esophagectomy. This review presents a summary of the most relevant endoscopic techniques for both achalasia and esophageal cancer. Endoscopic advances in diagnostic and therapeutic arenas allow for minimally invasive therapies and organ preservation in most settings of achalasia and early stage neoplasia of the esophagus provided that the clinical setting and physician’s expertise are prepared for this approach.