Vascular reparative therapy has become a reality with the introduction of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs). However, recent large randomized trials evaluating clinical results of the leading BRS (ABSORB BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA) raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of this first generation device when compared versus the best-in-class everolimus-eluting stent (i.e., Xience). Intensive research in the field is being conducted, stimulating the development of new generation BRS and the improvement of implantation techniques. This focused issue of the Journal of Thoracic Disease provides the reader with a “state-of-art” vision of the BRS technology (and the related clinical results) as it stands in 2017. The issue begins with an original overview of Italian Interventional Cardiologists regarding past, present and future of BRS technology. Then, it develops important topics such as BRS clinical performance in different settings (i.e., acute coronary syndromes, small vessels, diabetic patients), the role of intracoronary imaging in guiding BRS implantation, the mechanical behavior of polymeric and metallic BRS. In addition, the limitations of current BRS and their possible solution are summarized. Finally, the issue opens to the future with an update on new BRS platforms and their early clinical results. We sincerely hope the readers will enjoy this issue as we enjoyed its development.