Bronchopulmonary infection by Lophomonas blattarum in a pediatric patient after hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation: first report in Mexico

Napoleón González Saldaña, Francisco Javier Otero Mendoza, Francisco Rivas Larrauri, Diego Mauricio Galvis Trujillo, Edna Venegas Montoya, Eduardo Arias De La Garza, Hugo Juárez Olguín


Lophomonas blattarum is a multiflagellated protozoon which parasitizes the gut of termites and cockroaches. Although L. blattarum infection is rare, it can affect lung, maxillary sinuses and genitourinary tract. The presentation of bronchopulmonary lophomonas includes nonspecific symptoms such as fever, cough and dyspnea. Diagnosis is based on identification of living protozoan forms in fresh samples from respiratory secretions (bronchoalveolar lavage). We report the case of a 2-year-old male with a history of severe combined immunodeficiency (T-, B-, NK-), post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant and full immune reconstitution 12 months following a successful transplant who thereafter presented lophomonas.