The future of achalasia therapy: expanding the minimally invasive armamentarium and risk of secondary gastroesophageal reflux

Kelsey F. Angell, Jeffrey M. Marks


Achalasia is a primary motor disorder of the esophagus characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis (1). Patients often present with progressive dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss.