Article Abstract

Contributing factors to the outcome of primary malignant chest wall tumors

Authors: Abdel Rahman Mohamed Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Rahouma, Rabab Gaafar, Sherif Bahaa, Iman Loay, Mohamed Kamel, Hoda Abdelbaki, Maha Yahia


Background: Primary malignant chest-wall tumors (PMCWTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors. They require a special experience in designing resection and reconstruction. They account for less than 1% of all primary malignant tumors. This study is designed to clarify different factors contributing to the outcome of patients with PMCWTs in our institution.
Methods: A retrospective study included 98 patients with pathology proven PMCWTs, treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Egypt, during the past 10 years. Used variables were: age, sex, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), site, size, multiplicity, pathologic subtype, tumor grade, safety margin (SM), excised ribs, complications, estimated blood loss (EBL), neo-adjuvant and adjuvant treatments, Overall and disease free survival (DFS) were obtained using Kaplan-Meier method and compared using Log rank test. Cox regression was used to identify DFS predictors.
Results: PMCWTs represented 10.5% of all thoracic malignancies in our institution. There were 51 females (52%). The median age was 39 years [interquartile range (IQR) =25–52.3)] years. Chondrosarcoma was the commonest tumor histology (20.4%). The median tumor size was 8 cm (IQR =5–14). Tumor multiplicity was found in 18.4% of patients. Bone resection was performed in 76 patients (78.3%), ribs resection was performed in 59 patients and the median number of resected ribs per patient was 3 (IQR =1–3) ribs. Sternal resection was done in 7 (7.1%) cases. R0 resection was achieved in 62.2% of patients. There was one operative related mortality (1.02%) and 17.3% patients suffered procedure related complications. Local recurrence developed in 35 (35.7%) patients. The overall survival (OS) at 1, 3 and 5 years was 73.9%, 45.6% and 34.6% respectively and the median OS was 33 months (95% CI, 21.8–44.2), while median DFS was 24 months (95% CI, 19.6–28.4). Predictors of better DFS were –ve SM (P<0.001), tumors <5 cm (P=0.039), low grade (P=0.033), lower EBL (P=0.003) and absence of adjuvant therapy (P=0.007); however, on multivariate analysis, only –ve SM was the only predictor (HR =0.54; 95% CI, 0.29–0.97, P=0.041).
Conclusions: In primary malignant CWTs (PMCWTs) achievement of wide resection margins is of great importance to minimize the local tumor recurrence that will have an adverse impact on long-term survival.