Article Abstract

Anatomic and surgical factors affecting the switch from minimally invasive transthoracic occlusion to open surgery during ventricular septal defect repair

Authors: Jian Fang, Shaobo Xie, Lunchao Ma, Chao Yang

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the specific causes for switching patients from minimally invasive transthoracic occlusion to surgical repair under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). By retrospectively analyzing 340 cases, we sought to provide the clinical reference for improving the success rate of minimally invasive transthoracic device closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD).
Methods: Among the 340 patients who underwent transthoracic closure of VSDs in the past 3 years at our hospital, 26 patients needed to be switched to surgical repair under CPB due to failure of transthoracic closure. We investigated the causes by retrospectively analyzing the findings from preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and surgical exploration.
Results: Among the 340 patients who underwent transthoracic closure of VSDs, 26 patients (7.65%) were switched to surgical repair under CPB, which included 11 cases of membranous aneurysm (13.10%), 13 cases of perimembranous type (6.22%) and 2 cases of intracristal type (5.00%) according to their anatomic classifications. Among the 186 patients who underwent transthoracic closure during the first 17 months, 20 patients (10.75%) were switched to surgical repair under CPB. The main causes were failure of the delivery system to pass through the VSD in 7 patients, obvious residual shunts after releasing the occluder in 5 patients, significant shedding or shifting after releasing the occluder in 4 patients, significant regurgitation in adjacent valves in 3 patients and severe intraoperative complication (bleeding) in 1 patient. Among the 154 patients who underwent transthoracic closure during the late 17 months, 6 patients (3.90%) were switched to surgical repair under cardiopulmonary bypass. The main causes were significant residual shunts after releasing the occluder in 3 patients, significant regurgitation in adjacent valves in 2 patients after releasing the occluder and failure of the delivery system to pass through the VSD in 1 patient.
Conclusions: Among all the anatomic classifications, membranous aneurysm VSD had the highest risk for switching from minimally invasive transthoracic closure to surgical repair under CPB. During the early period, the surgeons were not yet skilled with the minimally invasive transthoracic closure procedure, and the main causes of switching to surgical repair under CPB were that the delivery system could not pass through the ventricular septal defect and significant residual shunts persisted after releasing the occluder. In contrast, in the late period, the surgeons were skilled with the minimally invasive transthoracic closure procedure, and the main causes were significant residual shunts and obvious regurgitation in adjacent valves after releasing the occluder.