Interfacial tissue engineering of heart regenerative medicine based on soft cell-porous scaffolds
Myocardial infarction (MI), occurs when the coronary artery is occluded resulting in the hypoxia of areas in heart tissue, is increasing in recent years because of the population ageing and lifestyle changes. Currently, there is no ideal therapeutic scheme because of the limitation of MI therapeutic strategies due to the lack of regenerative ability of the heart cells in adult humans. Recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine brings hope to the MI therapy and current studies are focusing on restoring the function and structure of damaged tissue by delivering exogenous cells or stimulating endogenous heart cells. However, attempts to directly inject stem cells or cardiomyocytes to the infract zone often lead to rapid cell death and abundant cell loss. To address this challenge, various soft repair cells and porous scaffold materials have been integrated to improve cell retention and engraftment and preventing left ventricle (LV) dilatation. In this article, we will review the current method for heart regeneration based on soft cell-porous scaffold interfacial tissue engineering including common stem cell types, biomaterials, and cardiac patch and will discuss potential future directions in this area.