Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect: principles and available devices
There has been a remarkable improvement in the treatment strategy of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) over the last few decades. Indebted to the improvement in device technology and procedural techniques, transcatheter closure of ASD is currently accepted as the treatment of choice in most patients with secundum ASD. Recent generation devices enable easy and safe deployment of device with the properties of adequate flexibility, re-capturability and repositioning. Use of biocompatible materials with improved device design and refined equipment finish may promote re-endothelialization and reduce potential damage to nearby structures. Most of currently available devices show excellent efficacy and comparable outcome with its own advantages and disadvantages. In addition to improvement of device properties and performance, there has been distinct improvement in procedural technique from numerous experiences of device closure of ASD. Nowadays there are well established principles regarding patient selection, pre-procedural evaluation, step-by-step details of procedure as well as post-procedural follow-up. However, an operator may encounter pitfalls in closing complex lesions such as large defect, rim deficiencies and multiple defects, so every operator has to be familiar with each available device, general principle as well as special issues for complex lesions.