Electrical disorders in atrial septal defect: genetics and heritability
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Most ASDs occur sporadically, but some are inherited and associated with cardiac conduction defects such as atrioventricular block (AVB) or bundle branch block. Mutations in genes encoding transcription factor gene TBX5 and NKX2-5, were found in Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) and ASD with atrioventricular (AV) conduction defects, respectively. HOS is characterized by upper limb anomaly in addition to ASD and AVB (heart-hand syndrome). ASD associated with NKX2-5 is rare but is reported to cause sudden cardiac death (SCD) or cardiomyopathy. We provide a review of these two diseases.