Review of mitral valve insufficiency: repair or replacement

Athanasios Madesis, Kosmas Tsakiridis, Paul Zarogoulidis, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos Machairiotis, Ioanna Kougioumtzi, George Kesisis, Theodora Tsiouda, Thomas Beleveslis, Alexander Koletas, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis

Abstract

Mitral valve (MV) dysfunction is the second-most common clinically significant form of valvular defect in adults. MV regurgitation occurs with the increasing frequency of degenerative changes of the aging process. Moreover, other causes of clinically significant MV regurgitation include cardiac ischemia, infective endocarditis and rhematic disease more frequently in less developed countries. Recent evidence suggests that the best outcomes after repair of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are achieved in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, who are selected for surgery soon after diagnosis on the basis of echocardiography. This review will focus on the surgical management of mitral insufficiency according to its aetiology today and will give insight to some of the perspectives that lay in the future.