Article Abstract

Clinical and molecular characteristics of unicentric mediastinal Castleman disease

Authors: Antoine Legras, Anne Tallet, Audrey Didelot, Aurélie Cazes, Claire Danel, Angela Hin, Raphaël Borie, Bruno Crestani, Yves Castier, Patrick Bagan, Françoise Le Pimpec-Barthes, Marc Riquet, Hélène Blons, Pierre Mordant


Background: Unicentric mediastinal Castleman disease (CD) is a rare condition, poorly characterized due to the small number of cases and the absence of genomic study. We analyzed clinical, radiological, histological and genomic patterns associated with mediastinal CD in a substantial case series.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed cases of unicentric mediastinal CD managed in 2 French thoracic surgery departments between 1988 and 2012. Clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological data were recorded. On available FFPE blocks we performed mutation screening by next-generation-sequencing, using AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot v2 (Life Technologies) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (AKT-mTOR pathway).
Results: Eleven patients were identified (mean age 41±15 years, sex-ratio 0.8, median follow-up 78 months). Surgical approach was thoracotomy (n=6), sternotomy (n=4), and VATS (n=1). Additional procedures included thymectomy in three cases, mediastinal lymphadenectomy in two cases, and bilobectomy in one case. One patient presented local relapse as a follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, leading to death 48 months after the first resection. Within 9 patients whose FFPE blocks were available, 2 mutations were found: VHL (p.F119L, 35%, n=1) and JAK3 (p.V718L, 53%, n=1). Phospho-AKT and phospho-mTOR stainings were negative in all cases, whereas phospho-S6RP staining was positive in eight cases, mainly in interfollicular cell cytoplasm.
Conclusions: From this series of patients with unicentric mediastinal CD, we observed 2 cases of potential driver mutations and 8 cases of phospho-S6RP activation not related to AKT-mTOR. Larger studies are required to decipher more precisely the molecular abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets underlying this uncommon condition.