The correlation of pulmonary arterial hypertension with late recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation

Yan-Qun Zhang, Fei-Long Zhang, Wei-Wei Wang, Xue-Hai Chen, Jian-Hua Chen, Liang-Long Chen


Background: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is one of the most common clinical arrhythmias. Although radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation has continuously matured and developed in recent years, some patients treated with RFCA continued to have atrial fibrillation recurrence, and the recurrence rate was high. Determining indicators to predict the recurrence of PAF after RFCA is significantly important for improving the surgical success rate and guiding clinical work. This study aimed to investigate the influence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on the late recurrence of PAF after RFCA.
Methods: A total of 300 patients with PAF, who underwent RFCA for the first time at the Department of Cardiology of Fujian Union Medical College Hospital from January 2013 to October 2016, were retrospectively studied. These patients were regularly followed-up from 3 months at least to 3 years and clinical data were collected. In order to observe the 100 PAF patients with PAH were assigned into the observation group, and 200 PAF patients without PAH were assigned as the control group. PAH and its related clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analysis.
Results: The follow-up results revealed that 34 patients had early recurrence, and the early arrhythmia recurrence rate was 11.3%. Furthermore, 22 patients had late recurrence, including 19 patients with atrial fibrillation and three patients with atrial flutter; and the late recurrence rate was 7.3%. The univariate ANOVA revealed that PAH (P=0.001), early recurrence (P=0.014) and Left atrial diameter (LAD) (P=0.023) had significant effects on late recurrence after PAF ablation. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis revealed that PAH (P=0.049, OR =1.053, 95% CI: 1.000–1.109) was independently correlated to late recurrence of PAF.
Conclusions: PAH is a predictive factor for late recurrence of PAF after RFCA.