Mechanical interventricular dependency supports hemodynamics in tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy

Juan Lei, Zhongxia Sun, Lingchun Lyu, Randall G. Green, Ernest Scalzetti, David Feiglin, Jingfeng Wang, Kan Liu


Background: Although morphological abnormalities of the heart appear to be remarkable, most patients with tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) remain clinically stable. We investigate real time changes in the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) mechanics and function to explore the mechanism to preserve hemodynamics.
Methods: With deformation and Doppler echocardiography, we evaluated myocardial mechanics and ventricular function/hemodynamics simultaneously in 103 consecutive TTC patients admitted from 01/01/2008 through 12/31/2015. The coronary angiography and left ventriculography were performed to rule out culprit coronary artery stenosis (CAS). We included 66 patients in a control group with matched age, sex, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and 41 patients in a group of myocardial infarction induced cardiogenic shock, who required circulatory supporting devices to maintain hemodynamic stability.
Results: Although systolic myocardial strain in most of the LV segments was significantly impaired, 4 basal LV segments remained functionally active during acute stage of TTC. The impairment in the myocardial strain of the RV apex could extend to the middle segments, but basal RV systolic strain was also preserved. Despites comparable apical to basal strain gradients, LV and RV displayed discrepant functional/hemodynamic status. In contrast to LV, RV functional/hemodynamic parameters appeared to be hyper-dynamic. This unique RV strain pattern remained unchanged in patients with atypical (mid-LV cavity) TTC. In 41 patients with myocardial infarction induced cardiogenic shock, RV exhibited comparable mechanic and functional features with those in TTC patients.
Conclusions: The identified LV and RV mechanic changes appear to support interventricular hemodynamic dependence during TTC, which may represent a universal rescue mechanism in a jeopardized or injured heart.