Lung volume reduction surgery or bronchoscopic lung volume reduction: is there an algorithm for allocation?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the world with the annual number of deaths increasing every year. Alterations in chest wall mechanics, respiratory muscle mechanics, and impaired cardiac function that result from increased air-trapping are well known sequelae of COPD and contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. A reduction in hyperinflation can improve cardiopulmonary function. In selected patients with COPD and an emphysema phenotype, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has demonstrated improvements in symptom burden and mortality. Minimally invasive bronchoscopic techniques that reduce end-expiratory lung volume have shown improvements in lung function, dyspnea and quality of life. In this review, we review selection criteria, risks, and benefits of surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR). Recommendations are provided to guide treatment decisions based on the current literature.