Management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in special sub-populations including those with HIV co-infection, pregnancy, diabetes, organ-specific dysfunction, and in the critically ill
Tuberculosis remains a major problem globally, and is the leading cause of death from an infectious agent. Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens to marginalise the substantial gains that have recently been made in the fight against tuberculosis. Drug-resistant TB has significant associated morbidity and a high mortality, with only half of all multidrug-resistant TB patients achieving a successful treatment outcome. Patients with drug-resistant TB in resource-poor settings are now gaining access to newer and repurposed anti-tuberculosis drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid and linezolid. However, with ever increasing rates of co-morbidity, there is little guidance on how to manage complex patients with drug-resistant TB. We address that knowledge gap, and outline principles underpinning the management of drug-resistant TB in special situations including HIV co-infection, pregnancy, renal disease, liver disease, diabetes, and in the critically ill.