Infections after lung transplantation
The good clinical result of lung transplantation is constantly undermined by the high incidence of infection, which negatively impacts on function and survival. Moreover, infections may also have immunological interactions that play a role in the acute rejection and in the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. There is a temporal sequence in the types of infection that affects lung allograft: in the first postoperative month bacteria are the most frequent cause of infection; following this phase, cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis carinii are common. Fungal infections are particularly feared due to their association with bronchial complication and high mortality. Scrupulous postoperative surveillance is mandatory for the successful management of lung transplantation patients with respect to early detection and treatment of infections. This paper is aimed to address clinicians in the management of the major infectious complications that affect the lung transplant population.