Article Abstract

Risk factors for noninvasive ventilation failure in patients with post-extubation acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery

Authors: Yang Liu, Zhao An, Jinqiang Chen, Yaoyang Liu, Yangfeng Tang, Qingqi Han, Fanglin Lu, Hao Tang, Zhiyun Xu


Background: The effect of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) after cardiac surgery is controversial. This study identified the feasibility of NIV and assessed the risk factors of NIV failure in patients with ARF after cardiac surgery.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 112 patients with ARF requiring NIV and categorized them into the NIV failure and success groups. Patient data were extracted for further analysis, the primary outcomes were the need for endotracheal intubation and NIV-related in-hospital mortality. The risk factors for NIV failure in patients with post-extubation ARF was analyzed.
Results: The median time from extubation to NIV was 11 hours. No difference in the EuroSCORE existed between the two groups. NIV failed in 38.4% of the patients. The NIV failure group had a higher in-hospital mortality and stay at the longer intensive care unit (ICU). Most cases of NIV failure occurred within 1–48 hours of the treatment. The main causes of early NIV failure were a weak cough reflex and/or excessive secretions and hemodynamic instability. A Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score ≥10.5, vasoactive-inotropic score ≥6, and pneumonia were predictors of NIV failure, whereas a body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m2 predicted NIV success.
Conclusions: NIV was effective in the study population. Multiple organ dysfunction, pneumonia, and significant inotropic drug support before NIV were associated with NIV failure, whereas a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was a predictor of NIV success.