Smoking resumption after heart or lung transplantation: a systematic review and suggestions for screening and management
Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the developed world and kills half of all long-term users. Smoking resumption after heart or lung transplantation is associated with allograft dysfunction, higher incidence of cancer, and reduced overall survival. Although self-reporting is considered an unreliable method for tobacco use detection, implementing systematic cotinine-based screening has proven challenging. This review examines the prevalence of smoking resumption in thoracic transplant patients, explores the risk factors associated with a post-transplant smoking resumption and discusses the currently available smoking cessation interventions for transplant patients.