Smoking resumption after heart or lung transplantation: a systematic review and suggestions for screening and management

Patrick Hofmann, Christian Benden, Malcolm Kohler, Macé M. Schuurmans


Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the developed world and kills half of all long-term users. Smoking resumption after heart or lung transplantation is associated with allograft dysfunction, higher incidence of cancer, and reduced overall survival. Although self-reporting is considered an unreliable method for tobacco use detection, implementing systematic cotinine-based screening has proven challenging. This review examines the prevalence of smoking resumption in thoracic transplant patients, explores the risk factors associated with a post-transplant smoking resumption and discusses the currently available smoking cessation interventions for transplant patients.