Frequency of actionable alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild type non-small cell lung cancer: experience of the Wide Catchment Area of Romagna (AVR)

Elisa Chiadini, Matteo Canale, Angelo Delmonte, Claudio Dazzi, Claudia Casanova, Laura Capelli, Marita Mariotti, Maximilian Papi, Alessandro Gamboni, Maurizio Puccetti, Sara Bravaccini, Alessandra Dubini, Daniele Calistri, Lucio Crinò, Paola Ulivi


Background: Molecular diagnostics for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become the standard of care for personalized treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and EML4-ALK translocation represent the two most important alterations in first-line treatment decision-making. However, other potentially targetable alterations are also present.
Methods: One thousand consecutive NSCLC patients with EGFR wild type (wt) tumors diagnosed by routine molecular analysis were considered. KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, PIK3CA, NRAS, ALK, MAP2K1, RET and DDR2 gene mutations were analyzed using the multiparametric Sequenom MassARRAY® platform. EML4-ALK and ROS1 rearrangements were also assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. HER4 status was determined by direct sequencing.
Results: Three hundred and forty-eight (34.8%), 31 (3.1%), 39 (4.4%), 14 (1.8%), 6 (0.7%), 16 (1.8%), 5 (0.6%) and 9 (0.9%) patients showed an alteration in KRAS, BRAF, ALK, ROS1, NRAS, PIK3CA, MAPK1/2 and HER2 genes, respectively. Of the 657 patients for whom all markers were determined, 318 (48%) patients had at least one alteration. Eight patients showed overlapping mutations, 4 KRAS mutation/EML4-ALK translocation, one KRAS mutation/ROS1 rearrangement, 2 KRAS/PIK3CA mutations, and one BRAF/PIK3CA mutations.
Conclusions: About 50% of our patients had a potentially targetable alteration, confirming the usefulness of a multiparametric approach for routine molecular diagnostics aimed at identifying potential therapeutic targets.