Radiologic presentation of non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1 therapy
Tumors develop multiple mechanisms to evade attack from the immune system. Understanding these immune evasion mechanisms is important for developing new strategies in cancer treatment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis yield remarkably durable responses in multiple solid cancer, such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial cancer (1-4). Currently, agents that have been FDA approved for clinical use are pembrolizumab and nivolumab (PD-1 inhibitors), atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab (PD-L1 inhibitors).