Article Abstract

Clinical features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae coinfection and need for its testing in influenza pneumonia patients

Authors: Jung Heon Kim, Jae Hyun Kwon, Jeong-Yong Lee, Jong Seung Lee, Jeong-Min Ryu, Sung-Han Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim


Background: To investigate the clinical features of coinfection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common copathogen in influenza, in influenza pneumonia patients.
Methods: We reviewed 4,465 patients with influenza who visited a tertiary care hospital emergency department in Seoul (Korea) from 2010 through 2016, and underwent immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. pneumoniae. Influenza pneumonia was defined as laboratory-confirmed influenza plus radiographic pneumonia. Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia or non-mycoplasma bacterial coinfection were excluded. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings and outcomes of the influenza pneumonia patients with and without M. pneumoniae coinfection were compared. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the coinfection.
Results: Of 244 influenza pneumonia patients, 41 (16.8%) had M. pneumoniae coinfection. These patients were younger with a higher frequency of age of 5–10 years, and had higher white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts; lower concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). The coinfection had no association with specific radiographic findings and poor outcome. Multivariable analysis showed the age of 5–10 years (adjusted odds ratio, 18.83; 95% confidence interval, 5.899–60.08; P <0.001) as the factor associated with the coinfection.
Conclusions: M. pneumoniae coinfection in influenza pneumonia may be associated with the age of 5–10 years, and otherwise clinically indistinct from influenza pneumonia without the coinfection. This finding suggests the need for M. pneumoniae testing in patients aged 5–10 years with influenza pneumonia.

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