Smoking and pulmonary complications: respiratory prehabilitation
The severity of the clinical condition and co-morbidities of the patients for esophagectomy require a complex assessment and risk stratification before the operation, and most of the cases need complex management. We did a literature search and considered the data on risk stratification and complex management of patients who undergo thoracic surgery. Smoking cessation programs can protect against complications, which is related to the respiratory system, the heart and the convalescence of the wounds in postoperative condition, but the timing is critical due to the operation. A complex team of physicians and healthcare professionals, as well as respiratory prehabilitation, can help to improve the clinical condition, chest kinematics, lung mechanics, peripheral and respiratory muscle function, metabolism and quality of life of this type of patients. We need to consider a complex risk stratification before esophagectomy and require complex management for these patients, including smoking cessation and respiratory prehabilitation, to improve the post-operative complications.