Article Abstract

Pattern of recurrence after CyberKnife stereotactic body radiotherapy for peripheral early non-small cell lung cancer

Authors: Masaki Nakamura, Ryo Nishikawa, Hiroshi Mayahara, Haruka Uezono, Aya Harada, Naoki Hashimoto, Hideki Nishimura


Background: The treatment efficacy after CyberKnife stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) have not been adequately addressed. The purpose of this study was to investigate pattern of recurrence according to irradiation field after CyberKnife SBRT for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: This retrospective study included patients with peripheral cT1/2N0M0 NSCLC that was treated with SBRT using a CyberKnife between May 2013 and March 2016 at single institute and followed up by more than two imaging examinations. Both operable and inoperable patients were included. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Cumulative incidence curves of recurrence were calculated and compared using the Gray’s test.
Results: Total 71 patients were included and analyzed in this study. The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 34 months (range, 7–64 months). The 2-year OS and PFS rate were 93% (95% CI: 83–97%) and 77% (95% CI: 65–86%), respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence rate of infield recurrence and out-of-field recurrence were 6% (95% CI: 2–14%) and 17% (95% CI: 9–27%), respectively. Gross tumor volume (GTV) ≥9 mL and diagnosis-to-treatment interval (DTI) ≥90 days were significantly associated with infield recurrence (P<0.001 and P=0.007), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation was significantly associated with out-of-field recurrence (P=0.014).
Conclusions: Treatment efficacy after CyberKnife SBRT for peripheral early-stage NSCLC was identical to previous conventional linac-based SBRT reports. With short follow-up period, it was found that GTV and DTI were the significant predictive factor of infield recurrence, and EGFR mutation was the significant predictive factor of out-of-field recurrence.