Ischaemic conditioning of the stomach previous to esophageal surgery
A gastric conduit is most frequently used for reconstruction in oesophageal surgery, and ischemia of the conduit is the most fragile aspect of the esophagogastric anastomosis with as consequence the anastomotic leakage. In order to avoid it, the concept of ischaemic conditioning of the stomach previous to surgery has been designed. The basis of ischemic conditioning is that interrupting vascularization of the stomach before making the anastomosis eases the gastric fundus adaptation to ischemic conditions. It consists of the interruption of the principal feeding arteries of the stomach (except the right gastroepiploic artery) weeks before esophagectomy. Previously published literature contemplates two different techniques: angiographic embolization or laparoscopic ligation or division of vessels. In this study, the anatomic and physio-pathologic background of ischemic preconditioning is described and the published current evidence is reviewed.