Endoscopic resection for early esophageal carcinoma
Endoscopic resection for early esophageal cancer is a very precise endoscopic surgical technique and having experience in endoscopic resection is mandatory to perform these kinds of procedures safely. In case of adequate resection and favorable histological outcome, long-term prognosis of the patient is excellent. The basic principle for endoscopic treatment of early adenocarcinoma is based on the fact that the risk of lymph node metastasis gradually increases with the depth of invasion. Inspection and evaluation of all mucosal and submucosal lesions need to be done carefully before endoscopic resection. Endoscopic resection of mucosal (T1m1-3) and superficial submucosal (T1sm1) adenocarcinoma can be curative as well as for superficial mucosal (T1m1-m2) squamous cell carcinoma. In Paris type I lesions in Barrett’s esophagus and for early squamous cell carcinoma endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the preferred option. The risk of severe adverse events associated with endoscopic resection are low. Most adverse events are managed endoscopically and can be treated conservatively. Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation is the most widely used ablation technique for Barrett’s epithelium and highly effective to achieve full remission of dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia. The role of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment armamentarium in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus has still to be determined.