Article Abstract

Impact of initial plasma presepsin level for clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with pneumonia

Authors: Motoi Ugajin, Yu Matsuura, Kei Matsuura, Hiroshi Matsuura

Abstract

Background: Presepsin, the soluble CD14 subtype, is known as a sepsis biomarker. However, its clinical significance in pneumonia is unclear. We investigated the effects of plasma presepsin level on clinical outcomes in patients with pneumonia.
Methods: Patients over 18 years old admitted to our hospital due to pneumonia from May 2016 through November 2017 were reviewed using electronic medical records. One hundred and seventy-two patients who underwent measurement of plasma presepsin levels on admission were enrolled. Median age of enrolled patients was 81 years [interquartile range (IQR), 68–86 years]. Pneumonia severity index (PSI) class and A-DROP score on admission were calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of 30-day mortality and to identify the optimal cut-off value of plasma presepsin level. Correlations between plasma presepsin level and other factors were assessed using the Spearman’s test. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test were performed to assess the two curves differentiated with the optimal cut-off value of plasma presepsin level.
Results: Seventeen patients (9.9%) died within 30 days of admission. The deceased patients had higher value of plasma presepsin on admission (539 pg/mL; IQR, 414–832 pg/mL) compared with the survivors (334 pg/mL; IQR, 223–484 pg/mL) (P=0.001). The areas under ROC curve for predicting 30-day mortality were 0.742 for plasma presepsin, 0.755 for A-DROP score, and 0.774 for PSI class. Plasma presepsin level was not associated with etiology of pneumonia. However, it was moderately correlated with serum creatinine level (rs =0.524, P<0.001). The ROC curve analysis derived 470 pg/mL of plasma presepsin level as the optimal cut-off value for predicting 30-day mortality. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with plasma presepsin level ≥470 pg/mL on admission had significantly higher 30-day mortality than those with plasma presepsin level <470 pg/mL (P<0.001). Among patients with A-DROP score ≥3, those with plasma presepsin level ≥470 mg on admission had significantly higher 30-day mortality (P=0.013). Similarly, among patients with PSI class ≥4, those with plasma presepsin level ≥470 mg on admission had significantly higher 30-day mortality (P=0.005).
Conclusions: In hospitalized pneumonia patients, plasma presepsin level on admission could be a useful predictor of 30-day mortality and an additional prognostic biomarker on existing severity assessment scales.

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