Detection, classification, and management of rejection after lung transplantation
Rejection is a major complication following lung transplantation. Acute cellular rejection, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) are all risk factors for the subsequent development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Acute cellular rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis have well defined histopathologic diagnostic criteria and grading. Diagnosis of AMR requires a multidisciplinary approach. CLAD is the major barrier to long-term survival following lung transplantation. The most common phenotype of CLAD is bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) which is defined by a persistent obstructive decline in lung function. Restrictive allograft dysfunction (RAS) is a second phenotype of CLAD and is associated with a worse prognosis. This article will review the diagnosis, staging, clinical presentation, and treatment of acute rejection, AMR, and CLAD following lung transplantation.