Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease classification, phenotypes and risk assessment

Prasad Manian


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease. Various classification systems and phenotypes have been proposed. This review highlights the current classifications of COPD, describes the major phenotypes and provides a blue print for risk assessment of COPD. It is likely that more phenotypes and endotypes of COPD will be described paving the way to personalized medicine for patients with COPD.