A new technology for reducing anastomotic fistula in the neck after esophageal cancer surgery

Ya-Nan Song, Yu Qi, Chun-Yang Zhang, Yin-Liang Sheng, Kai Wu, Sen-Lin Zhu, Lu Han, Ting-ting Shan, Guan-Chao Ye, Qing-Yi Zhang, Yan-Li Chen, Jin-Wei Chen, Ya-Fei Liu, Lu-Bing Gao, Yang Yang, Zhan-Feng He, Deng-Yan Zhu, Dong-Lei Liu, Feng-Biao Wen, Tian-Liang Zheng, Ji-Lun Li, Song Zhao


Background: To explore the risk factors and prevention methods of cervical mechanical anastomotic fistula and stenosis after the radical resection of esophageal cancer.
Methods: From March 2018 to November 2018, 128 patients undergoing mechanical anastomosis of esophageal cancer were selected from the Department of Thoracic Surgery of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. All the enrolled patients were operated on using the Mckeown method, and a retrospective study was conducted. Data for preoperative and postoperative test indices, intraoperative embedding materials, postoperative complications, and preoperative and postoperative treatment were collected, and the relationship between various factors and the incidence of cervical anastomotic fistula and stenosis was analysed. Univariate analysis was conducted using t tests or Fisher’s exact probability method, and multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression models.
Results: All 128 patients successfully underwent surgery without dying. The enrolled patients were evaluated using the Stooler classification, with 28 patients having grade 0, 41 patients having grade 1, 34 patients having grade 2, 21 patients having grade 3, and 4 patients having grade 4 stenosis. Patients with stenosis of grade 3 or above had obvious choking sensation, which could only be relieved by balloon dilation. Symptoms in all patients with stenosis were relieved by balloon dilation. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding embedding materials, preoperative choking history, history of alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, history of coronary heart disease, history of diabetes, postoperative calcium concentration, average albumin concentration, average platelet concentration, body mass index, anastomotic fistula, preoperative chemotherapy, postoperative chemotherapy, or postoperative cough (P>0.05). There were significant differences in postoperative reflux (χ2=11.338, P<0.05) and scar constitution (χ2=12.497, P<0.05). The effects of embedding materials in patients with anastomotic fistula were significantly different (χ2=4.372, P<0.05).
Conclusions: Postoperative reflux and scar constitution may be risk factors for postoperative anastomotic stenosis after resection of esophageal cancer. There was almost no difference in the effects on esophageal anastomotic stenosis between embedding materials and the omentum majus, but Neoveil® may have certain advantages in preventing cervical anastomotic fistula, and thus may have certain clinical application value.