Article Abstract

Risk factors of severe hemoptysis in patients with fungus ball

Authors: Tae Hoon Kim, Hyun Jung Koo, Chae-Man Lim, Sang-Bum Hong, Jin Won Huh, Kyung Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim, Woo Sung Kim, Younsuck Koh

Abstract

Background: Hemoptysis is one of the most important complications associated with fungus ball. However, the association of the primary size of the fungus ball and its change with the incidence of hemoptysis was not fully established. This study aims to determine the clinical risk factors of severe hemoptysis and natural course of fungus ball.
Methods: A retrospective study on patients with fungus ball was performed. Patients with severe hemoptysis-related events were compared to those without events, and the predictors for severe hemoptysis were investigated by Cox regression analysis. Three subgroups (decreased, stable, and increased) were classified according to the long-term size change, and the severe hemoptysis-free survival duration was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier survival curve.
Results: Among 173 patients, 50 (28.9%) experienced severe hemoptysis-related events. Risk-adjusted analysis revealed that age [hazard ratio (HR), 0.964; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.939–0.989], blood-tinged sputum [HR, 2.717; 95% CI, 1.513–4.879], and thick wall cavitary fungus balls [HR, 2.332; 95% CI, 1.290–4.215] were significant predictors of severe hemoptysis-related events in patients with fungus ball. However, the baseline size of the fungus ball and its change rate were not independent risk factors for severe hemoptysis-related events. Besides, the decreased group did not have a favorable outcome in severe hemoptysis related to fungus ball.
Conclusions: In a tertiary hospital, the incidence of severe hemoptysis-related events in patients with fungus ball was not low and reached 28.9%. Young patients, those with thick wall cavitary fungus ball, and those with complaints of blood-tinged sputum should be considered for early surgical treatment to prevent severe hemoptysis.