Three-dimensional printing in congenital heart disease

Joshua L. Hermsen, Alejandro Roldan-Alzate, Petros V. Anagnostopoulos


Three-dimensional printing (3Dp) has a broad array of medical applications and has been applied extensively in congenital heart disease given the variety and complexity of lesions encountered. 3Dps are unique when compared to other imaging modalities in that they are theoretically equally interpretable by radiologists, cardiologists and surgeons. The literature regarding 3Dp in congenital heart disease is recent and burgeoning. This review, categorized by application, should provide the reader with a comprehensive, albeit not complete, overview of 3Dp in congenital heart disease during the last decade.