Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS): not still ready to put on END

Daniele Lavacchi, Giandomenico Roviello, Maria Grazia Rodriquenz


In recent years, the marketing of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) has changed the attitudes of people towards tobacco products. In addition, ENDS are becoming very popular among youth. Since a high percentage of young people use these delivery systems as the first products containing nicotine, the acute and chronic exposure to ENDS emissions and nicotine-induced effects on the adolescent's brain deserve a special attention. Given the extremely varied types of ENDS and the heterogeneous concentrations of substances emitted by specific devices, an overall risk assessment is particularly difficult. Here we critically review the evidence on the safety profile of ENDS, we also discuss the global policies with the leading role of the World Health Organization (WHO), which provides updated information and indications that must guide community and individual choices.