Totally endoscopic mitral valve repair using a three-dimensional endoscope system: initial clinical experience in Korea

Jihoon Kim, Jae Suk Yoo


Background: The lack of depth perception is a significant challenge in two-dimensional (2D) video- assisted/directed minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). Accordingly, restoration of stereoscopic vision is potentially beneficial, and we present a single center experience of a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope system in cardiac surgery without robotic assistance.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the initial 40 consecutive patients who received totally endoscopic mitral valve (MV) repair using a 3D endoscope system between September 2017 and April 2019. The preoperative characteristics, operative data, and immediate postoperative outcomes, including echocardiographic results, were investigated.
Results: In all the patients (n=40, 100%), successful MV repair using the standard repair techniques was achieved regardless of the location of the MV lesion as follows: anterior leaflet (n=8, 20.0%), posterior leaflet (n=15, 37.5%), and both leaflets (n=17, 42.5%). Concomitant tricuspid ring annuloplasty (n=9, 22.5%) and atrial fibrillation ablation (n=7, 17.5%) were performed. There was no mortality. One reoperation for bleeding occurred. One patient had a sternotomy conversion due to aortic dissection immediately after declamping. Postoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) grades were none or trace in 38 patients (95.0%) and mild in 2 patients (5.0%) on predischarge echocardiography.
Conclusions: Totally endoscopic MV repair using a 3D endoscope system is technically feasible and safe on the basis of this initial experience.