Surgical options in atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is not benign and its prevalence is increasing. The two main goals in management of atrial fibrillation are to optimize hemodynamics through rate or rhythm control and to prevent systemic thrombo-embolism. To date, these two goals are still sub-optimally achieved, raising the need for alternative methods and strategies both pharmacologically and through interventions. In this review, we discuss surgical strategies of achieving both goals with insights on the evolution and potential future of these strategies.