Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis
Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Infectious, traumatic and immunologic processes must first be excluded. The majority of patients affected are female who present with progressive symptoms of upper airway obstruction, which can extend over a number of years. ILTS is characterized by short segment, circumferential stenotic lesions, located particularly at the level of the cricoid. Bronchoscopic evaluation is essential for establishing the diagnosis and operative planning. Various temporizing interventions have historically been utilized, including dilation and laser ablation, for symptomatic management. However these interventions have demonstrated diminishing returns and poor long-term outcomes. Patients with ILTS should be considered early for definitive surgical intervention to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. Laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction is a viable intervention, which has demonstrated good long-term results and low recurrence rates for this patient population.