The two sides of creatinine: both as bad as each other?

Marlies Ostermann, Kianoush Kashani, Lui G. Forni


Acute and chronic kidney diseases are major public health problems, and even relatively small rises in serum creatinine have been found to be associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality (1-4). In contrast, the relevance of serum creatinine levels below the normal range is appreciated far less in clinical practice.