Statistics as a science began in the second half of the XVII century with the aim to collect data in order to lay down laws as a rational foundation of decision-making. The word statistics derives from the Latin word, Status. In Hamlet, William Shakespeare first used the word statist with a political meaning (Devised a new commission, wrote it fair: I once did hold it, as our statists do, a baseness to write fair and labour’d much/how to forget that learning, but, sir, now, it did me yeoman’s service: wilt thou know. The effect of what I wrote?). Nevertheless, it is only in the last century that a few statisticians were active in developing new methods of analysis, theories, and applications of statistics. Nowadays, many branches of surgeries are completely penetrated by statistics and decision-making is often based on statistical analyses and accompanies the life of thoracic surgeons.