Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung injury and other adverse clinical outcomes. In order to understand the available evidence, a systematic review was conducted including the following topics: (I) protective ventilation (PV); (II) mode of mechanical ventilation [e.g., volume controlled (VCV) versus pressure controlled (PCV)]; (III) use of therapeutic hypercapnia; (IV) use of alveolar recruitment (open-lung) strategy; (V) pre-and post-operative application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP); (VI) Inspired Oxygen concentration; (VII) Non-intubated thoracoscopic lobectomy; and (VIII) adjuvant pharmacologic options. The recommendations of class II are non-intubated thoracoscopic lobectomy may be an alternative to conventional one-lung ventilation in selected patients. The recommendations of class IIa are: (I) Therapeutic hypercapnia to maintain a partial pressure of carbon dioxide at 50–70 mmHg is reasonable for patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (II) PV with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cmH2O are reasonable methods, based on current evidence; (III) alveolar recruitment [open lung ventilation (OLV)] may be beneficial in patients undergoing lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (IV) PCV is recommended over VCV for patients undergoing lung resection; (V) pre- and post-operative CPAP can improve short-term oxygenation in patients undergoing lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (VI) controlled mechanical ventilation with I:E ratio of 1:1 is reasonable in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation; (VII) use of lowest inspired oxygen concentration to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen saturation is reasonable based on physiologic principles; (VIII) Adjuvant drugs such as nebulized budesonide, intravenous sivelestat and ulinastatin are reasonable and can be used to attenuate inflammatory response.