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Clinical characteristics, classification and surgical treatment of periductal mastitis

	author = {Yanna Zhang and Yidong Zhou and Feng Mao and Jinghong Guan and Qiang Sun},
	title = {Clinical characteristics, classification and surgical treatment of periductal mastitis},
	journal = {Journal of Thoracic Disease},
	volume = {10},
	number = {4},
	year = {2018},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Background: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of periductal mastitis (PDM), propose the practical clinical classification system and evaluate the results of different surgical treatments in different type of PDM patients.
Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at department of breast surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. A total of 152 patients with the diagnosis of PDM were reviewed from March 2012 to December 2016. All of the patients underwent surgery. Data were collected regarding clinical manifestation, treatment, and outcomes. 
Results: The median age was 36 years. A subareolar breast mass was the most frequent symptom. The most common clinical manifestations were mass (98.0%), rubefaction (41.1%), nipple retraction (36.8%), abscess (36.8%), skin ulceration (25.7%), and mammary duct fistula (19.1%). Fourteen (9.2%) patients were recurrent PDM at first hospitalization. Eight (5.3%) patients had prolactinoma. Five (3.3%) patients were taking antipsychotic medications. Only four (2.6%) patients were smokers. Eight patients were highly suspected to be breast cancer before surgery. A four-type classification system was first proposed according to clinical manifestations. The different surgeries in each category were evaluated. After 3 years median follow-up, 11 (7.2%) patients got recurrence including two initial recurrent PDM. 
Conclusions: Periductal mastitis is a distinct benign breast condition of unknown etiology. Mass, abscess and fistula are most common manifestations of the disease. Wide surgical excision, fistulectomy and extended excision with transfer of a random breast dermo-glandular flap (BDGF) are effective surgical modalities for different type of PDM.},
	issn = {2077-6624},	url = {}