Review Article

Atrial septal defects and pulmonary arterial hypertension

Heba Nashat, Claudia Montanaro, Wei Li, Aleksander Kempny, Stephen J. Wort, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Michael A. Gatzoulis, Sonya V. Babu-Narayan


Atrial septal defects (ASD) are a common congenital heart defect. The majority of patient with ASDs often follow an uncomplicated course of events. However, a proportion of patients with ASDs, may have their condition complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH), with a subsequent significant impact on management, morbidity and mortality. The presence of PH, influences the suitability for defect closure. In this review we describe the different types of ASDs, the classification of PH related to congenital heart disease (CHD), when ASD closure is contraindicated and the management of patients who develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), including the most extreme form, Eisenmenger syndrome (ES).

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