Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma after Rituximab-containing regimen: two cases of report and literature review

Xu-Qin Jiang, Lei Fang, Xiao-Dong Mei, Xiao-Jing Wang, Ming-Hong Bao

Abstract

Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20+ antigen specific B cell, has been increasingly used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis. It is noted that Rituximab could enhanced the efficacy of CHOP-based chemotherapy. Meanwhile it could increase the opportunity of lung infection. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was not reported in the large-scale clinical trials of Rituximab, was found recently in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated with remedy containing Rituximab. We herein report two cases of PCP in lymphoma patients after Rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Both patients were successfully treated, with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in one case and Caspofungin alone in the other. We also reviewed the literature and concluded that PCP is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening infection in patients with non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma subjected to Rituximab-containing regimen. Therefore, adequate prophylaxis, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary.