Article Abstract

Contemporary applications of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation for cardiogenic shock: a “real world” experience

Authors: Federico Pappalardo, Silvia Ajello, Massimiliano Greco, Małgorzata Celińska-Spodar, Michele De Bonis, Alberto Zangrillo, Andrea Montisci


Background: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) had a pivotal role in the therapy of cardiogenic shock (CS), but recent studies have questioned its effects on patients’ outcome. Aim of this study is the description of a “real world” series of patients in which IABP was used as a primary mechanical circulatory support (MCS).
Methods: All patients who received IABP in our institution during 1 year were prospectively enrolled in our study. The outcomes were: ICU mortality, length of ICU stay, factors associated with mortality and complications of IABP. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the effect of several risk factors on mortality.
Results: A total of 119 patients were enrolled, 54 patients underwent IABP placement for CS unrelated to cardiac surgery (medical CS) and 65 after open-heart surgery. There was no significant difference for mortality between medical CS [12/54 (22.2%)] and cardiac surgery [7/65 (10.8%)] (P=0.09). The morbidity rate related to IABP was 11.3%. Multivariable analysis identified AKI (OR =9.3; 95% CI, 2.0–40.0; P=0.004), inotropic score at the time of IABP implantation (OR =1.06; 95% CI, 1.01–1.11; P=0.009) and history of myocardial revascularization (OR =4.7; 95% CI, 1.1–20.2; P=0.036) as independent predictors for early death (P<0.05). A ROC curve analysis for inotropic score at time of implantation and mortality was performed in the overall population [AUC=0.78 (95% CI 0.66-0.90)]. A cutoff of 20 has a specificity=72% and sensitivity=74% in this population.
Conclusions: Mortality is similar in medical and postcardiotomy CS. The benefits of IABP are limited if the amount of inotropes and the severity of shock are too high.