Malignancies after lung transplantation
Lung transplantation has become an efficient life-saving treatment for patients with end stage respiratory disease. The increasing good outcome following lung transplantation may be explained by growing experience of transplant teams and availability of potent immunosuppressive drugs. Nevertheless, the latter carries an inherent risk for malignancy besides other common side effects such as systemic hypertension, diabetes and renal dysfunction. Malignancies occur in a smaller proportion of patients but explain for a large proportion of deaths following transplantation. From the first year post-transplantation they will represent the third cause of death with an increasing incidence along post lung transplant survival. In this chapter, we will browse the different types of malignancies arising following lung transplantation. According to the different techniques for lung transplantation, specific types of bronchogenic carcinoma will be described in the explanted lung, in the native lung, and in the graft. Risk factors associated to immunosuppressive therapy, but also to occupational and environmental factors, especially smoking, will be discussed. Eventually, we will strive at integrating recommendations for the treatment of malignancies following lung transplantation.