Vaccine development for human mastadenovirus
Human mastadenovirus (HAdVs) can cause a broad spectrum of diseases in both children and adults, including acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Populations susceptible to adenovirus infection include children, immunocompromised patients and military recruits. To date, seven species (A–G) including more than 79 genotypes have been characterized, of which HAdV-B3, B4, B7 and the recently reemerged types 14 and 55 often lead to severe pneumonia. The live oral enteric-coated adenovirus type 4 and 7 vaccine, which was approved for use in US military personnel of 17 through 50 years of age, had been shown to be safe and highly effective in numerous clinical trials and by ongoing surveillance of febrile respiratory illness. However, there is currently no vaccine approved for general use in children and adults in any part of the world. This review article will summarize the epidemiological data available for adenovirus and the effectiveness of the adenovirus vaccine in the US military. It will also provide a brief overview of innovative vaccine strategies, animal models for vaccine evaluation, and issues regarding vaccine production.