Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer
Photodynamic therapy is increasingly being utilized to treat thoracic malignancies. For patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitely treat endobronchial, roentgenographically occult, or synchronous primary carcinomas. As definitive monotherapy, photodynamic therapy is most effective in treating bronchoscopically visible lung cancers ≤1 cm with no extracartilaginous invasion. For patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy can be used to palliate obstructing endobronchial lesions, as a component of definitive multi-modality therapy, or to increase operability or reduce the extent of operation required. A review of the available medical literature detailing all published studies utilizing photodynamic therapy to treat at least 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer is performed, and treatment recommendations and summaries for photodynamic therapy applications are described.