Necessity of the heart, for lung resection
Cardiac complications are the second most common cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing non-cardiac thoracic surgery. The estimated risk of major postoperative cardiac complications within the first 30 days after surgery is 2–3% and account for at least one-third of perioperative deaths (1,2). Aside from mortality, perioperative cardiac complications result in substantial morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Furthermore, such events can negatively impact both the intermediate and long-term prognosis of the thoracic malignancies being treated operatively. Therefore, preoperative cardiovascular risk evaluation should be considered mandatory and essential in the assessment of patients undergoing non-cardiac thoracic surgery. Frequently debated is the nature of the cardiac testing that should be performed given the lack of uniform guidelines.