Balanced control of both hyper and hypo-inflammatory phases as a new treatment paradigm in sepsis
The immune response of the host against invading pathogens is clinically manifested as sepsis. Sepsis is a complicated process characterized by distinct phases that usually occur in a sequential manner. The initial hyper-inflammation helps in elimination of the pathogen, but potentially may lead to excessive tissue injury. Hypo-inflammation helps in restoring immune homeostasis, but may lead to significant immune suppression and death from secondary infections if not appropriately controlled. Immune-modulating intervention in sepsis should be based on a balanced control of both the hyper and the hypo-inflammatory phase.